The ten measures of the triliteral verb / أَوْزان الفِعْل الثُلاثِيّ

The augmented forms in Arabic (الأَوْزان المزيدة)

Besides basic verbs, we can find derived forms of a root verb by adding one, two, or three letters. These are known as “augmented forms” in Arabic (الأَوْزان المَزيدة)

There are fourteen derived verb forms (stems) that have been traditionally labeled in Western Arabist literature by Roman numerals, beginning with the initial form I and proceeding to II, III, IV, and so on. Of these numerous stems, Forms I to X are far and away the most often encountered; only they will be discussed here.

We can discern nuances of meaning generally derived from the main verb form for each derivative. However many verbs do not properly fit into these classifications. Thus, it may be rather precarious to venture a guess as to what a particular derived verb truly means simply by its form alone. 

The power of this table is that for each verb form, a specific noun form is also assigned. This makes it possible to establish direct connections between verbs and nouns. In other words, it suffices to know only one verbal or nominal pattern to deduce all the others on the same row. This table represents a real key to understanding the Arabic language as it allows us to draw connections between different patterns based on the same root.

أَسْماء
Nouns
أَفْعال
Verbs
الوَزْن
Form
المَعْنى
Meaning
المَصْدَر
Verbal noun 
اِسْمُ المَفْعُول
Passive Participle (recipient)
اِسْمُ الفاعِل
Active Participle (agent)
المُضارِع
Imperfect
(present)
الماضي
Perfect
(past)
N/AمَفْعُولٌفاعِلٌيَفْعَلُفَعَلَIRegular
تَفْعِيلٌ / تَفْعِلةمُفَعَّلٌمُفَعِّلٌيُفَعِّلُفَعَّلَIICausative, intensive 
مُفاعَلةٌ / فِعَالٌمُفاعَلٌمُفاعِلٌيُفاعِلُفاعَلَIIIReciprocal
إِفْعالٌمُفْعَلٌمُفْعِلٌيُفْعِلُأَفْعَلَIVCausative
تَفَعُّلٌمُتَفَعَّلٌمُتَفَعِّلٌيَتَفَعَّلَتَفَعَّلَVReflexive of II
تَفاعُلٌمُتَفاعَلُمُتَفاعِلُيَتَفاعَلُتَفاعَلَVIReflexive of III
اِنْفِعالٌمُنْفَعَلٌمُنْفَعِلٌيَنْفَعِلُاِنْفَعَلَVIIPassive of I
اِفْتِعالٌمُفْتَعَلٌمُفْتَعِلٌيَفْتَعِلُاِفْتَعَلَVIII Reflexive of I
اِفْعِلالٌN/AمُفْعِلُّيَفْعَلُّاِفْعَلَّIVColors
اِسْتِفْعالٌمُسْتَفْعَلٌمُسْتَفْعِلٌيَسْتَفْعِلُاِسْتَفْعَلَXCausative, reflexive

Note: There is no verb that is used in all ten forms; normally each root will produce in use only certain derived forms, and sometimes one can even find derived forms without there being a simple verb of the same root.

Note 2: As mentioned previously, there is no infinitive in Arabic in the same sense as in English. As a consequence, for dictionary searches, it’s very important to memorize the root, which is mostly identical to its basic verb form (I) and the derived verb forms listed under it in a dictionary. Without this knowledge, it will be almost impossible to find any word in dictionaries.

Note 3: For every derived form, the active and passive participles are only differentiated thanks to the vowel on the middle root letter.

Noun forms

Active participle / اِسْم الفاعِل

Active participles – whether they’re adjectives or nouns – are used to point out the doer performing an action. In many cases, these active participles denote an ongoing activity or state that is close in feeling and meaning to a verb expressed in the imperfect tense; this may be comparable to English present partitives, progressive presents, and futures such as “will” and “going.”

He will lose هُوَ فاشِل 
A helperمُساعِد

Passive participle / اِسْمُ المَفْعُول

The passive participle is a type of adjective or noun that implies the result of an action. It shares similarities with the past participle in English grammar. When dealing with triliteral verbs (form I), it follows a specific pattern known as mafʿūl (مَفْعُول), for example:

writtenمَكْتُوب
victoriousمَنْصُور

Verbal noun / المَصْدَر

The term المَصْدَر, or ‘the source’ in English, is a noun that originates from the verb and signifies the action, quality, or condition described by it. The Arabic verbal noun, corresponds to gerunds ending with “-ing” and to other action words like:

a killingقَتْل
educationتَعْلِيم

Note: There’s too many different verbal noun forms for Form I to consider them as a specific pattern that could be displayed on the table. You can refer to our dedicated section on verbal nouns to have an overview of the different patterns.

The ten forms meanings

Form I: فَعَلَ

Although the vowelling of the derived verb forms remains the same for all verbs the vowelling of the middle consonant (radical) of the basic verb form (I) can vary in an unpredictable way. Therefore, it’s very important to learn verbs of Form I in their past and present tenses to be able to use them correctly in both tenses.

to studyدَرَسَ يَدْرُسُ
to knowعَلِمَ يَعْلَمُ

Form II: فَعّلَ

Formed by a doubling of the 2nd letter of the root. It can indicate:

  • Intensity also repetition of the action
قَطَّعَ
to cut in several pieces
← الوَزْن الثاني
Form II
← قَطَعَ
to cut
  • Factive sense
عَلَّمَ
to teach
← الوَزْن الثاني
Form II
← عَلِمَ
to know
  • Pronouncing a formula (often religious)
to say Allah Akbarكَبَّرَ يُكَبِّرُ
to thank Allah (say al-hamdulilah) حَمَّدَ يُحَمِّدُ

Form III (فَاعَلَ)

Form III is generated by adding an ا after the first root-letter. It often depicts someone striving towards something or another person, sometimes with a touch of rivalry or hostility.

to address a discourse (to someone or several people)خاطَبَ
to fightقاتَلَ

Form IV (أَفْعَلَ)

It is formed by adding a stable hamza on top of the alif ا   before the 1st root-letter (which disappears at مُضارِع). It very often has a factive or causative meaning.

أَسْكَتَ
to reduce to silence

← الوَزْن الرابِع
Form IV
← سَكَتَ
to be silent
أَسْقَطَ
bring down/to overthrow
← سَقَطَ
to fall

Form V (تَفَعّلَ)

It is formed by prefixing a تَـ to form II. It can indicate a reflective-passive sense of Form II:

تَعَلَّمَ
to learn

← الوَزْن الخامِس
Form V
← عَلَّمَ
to teach
تَقَطَّعَ
to cut itself
← قَطَّعَ
to cut in several pieces

Form VI (تَفَاعَلَ)

It is formed by prefixing a تَـ to Form III. It notes a reflective-passive sense of Form III with a nuance of reciprocal action performed by two parties.

تَحادَثَ
to have a conversation with one another


← الوَزْن السادِس
Form VI
← حادَثَ
to speak to someone
تَقاتَلَ
to fight/engage in battle with one another
← قاتَلَ
to fight

Form VII (اِنْفَعَلَ)

It is formed by adding an ا and نـ before the very first letter of any root word. Form VII of Arabic grammar reflects the reflexive-passive form of Form I, heavily emphasizing its passive aspect. As such, it doesn’t have a passive voice form.

اِنْسَحَبَ
to withdraw (oneself)


← الوَزْن السابِع
Form VII
← سَحَبَ
to withdraw
اِنْكَسَرَ
to break (oneself)
← كَسَرَ
to break

We do not find verbs in form VII whose root begins with:

لويرنتظء

Form VIII (اِفْتَعَلَ)

It is formed by adding an ا before the very first letter of any root word and a and تـ after it. Form VIII can also reflect the reflexive-passive form of Form I.

Note: To make pronunciation easier and smoother, the following modifications are done to certain derived verbs of form VIII.

  • If the first consonant of the basic verb form is تَ / ثَ / ط / ظ / د / ذ the تَ of Form VIII is assimilated by this letter which will be doubled (with a shadda).
(not اِدْتَعى ) اِدَّعى  
to claim


← الوَزْن الثامِن
Form VIII
← دعا
to call/invite
(not اِتْتَبَعَ ) اِتَّبَعَ
to go after/ to follow in the steps of 
← تَبَعَ
to follow
  • If the first consonant of the root letters is ز as in زَهَرَ (to shine) the ـتـ of form VIII is changed into د
(not اِزْتَهَرَ ) اِزْدَهَرَ
to flourish/ to prosper
← الوَزْن الثامِن
Form VIII
← زَهَرَ
to shine
  • If the first consonant of the root letters is one of the following four emphatic letters: ص/ض/ط/ظ the ـتـ of form VIII as in the pattern verb اِفْتَعَلَ is changed into ـطـ  
(not اِضْتَربَ) اِضْطَرَبَ
to be troubled
← الوَزْن الثامِن
Form VIII
← ضَرَبَ
to hit

Form IX (اِفْعَلّ)

It is formed by adding an alif ا before the 1st root letter and doubling of the 3rd letter of the root. It is unusual in the passive and is only used from the adjectives of color or deformity.

اِحْمَرَّ
to blush



← الوَزْن التاسِع
Form IX
← أَحْمَر
red
َاِسْوَدّ
to blacken
← أَسْوَد  
black
اِعْوَجَّ
to become twisted
← أَعْوَج
twisted

Form X (اِسْتَفْعَلَ)

It is formed by adding اِسْتَـ before the 1st letter of the root letter. Form X expresses:

  • The idea of asking, seeking
اِسْتَشارَ
To consult
  • The idea of “deeming as”
اِسْتَحْسَنَ
To deem a positive
  • The reflexive-passive form IV
اِسْتَخْبَرَ
To enquire
← الوَزْن العاشِر
Form X
← أَخْبَرَ
to inform

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Augmented forms

The ten measures of the triliteral verb

Learn about the ten measures of the triliteral verb in Arabic with our comprehensive guide. Perfect for beginners and advanced learners alike.

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