Inna and its sisters (إِنّ وَأَخَواتُها) are accusative particles that can only be followed by a noun, an attached pronouns (ضَمائِر مُتَّصِلة), a demonstrative or a relative pronoun (except ما or مَنْ). Thus, they necessarily introduce a nominal sentence (جُمْلة اِسْميّة).
When preceded by one of these particles:
- The subject of the nominal sentence (المُبْتَدأ) is called اِسْم إِنَّ (ism inna), and becomes accusative (مَنْصُوب).
- The predicate (الخَبَر) stays in the nominative case (مَرْفُوع) (if it is a noun or adjective).
|إِنَّ وأَخَواتُها (Inna and its sisters)|
|certainly / does not translate (a matter of style or a simple syntactic device used to highlight the starting term)||إنَّ|
|maybe / perharps (probability sometimes mixed with a wish)||لَعَلَّ|
|The sun is indeed hot||إِنَّ الشَمْسَ حارّةٌ|
|He declared to be the poet of the tribe||صَرَّحَ أَنّه شاعِرُ القَبِيلةِ|
|She slapped me as if her hand was iron||صَفَعَتْنِي كَأَنَّ يَدَها حَدِيدٌ|
|I am a student but I work||أَنا طالِبٌ وَلَكِنِّي أَعْمَلُ|
|If only we were rich||يا لَيْتَنا كُنا أَغْنياء|
|Perhaps victory is near||لَعَلَّ النَصْرَ قَريبٌ|
Note: The word لَكِنَّ is often preceded by و, while لَيْتَ is usually preceded by the vocative particle يـا.
Note 2: إِنَّ can be used meaning ‘that’/‘to’ with only two verbs which are قالَ (to say) and أَقْسَمَ (to swear)
He said that the food was delicious قالَ لي إِنَّ الطَّعامَ لَذِيذٌ They swore to God that they’re innocent أَقْسَمُوا بِاللّهِ إِنَّهُم أبرياءٌ
Note 3: أَنَّ can follow several prepositions (حُرُوف الجَرّ) to give a new meaning.
because لأَِنَّ despite مَعَ أَنَّ however عَلى أَنَّ / إِلاّ أَنَّ / غَيْرَ أَنَّ given that عِلْمًا بِأَنَّ
They (fem.) drink water because they are thirsty يَشْرَبْنَ الماءَ لأَنَّهُنَّ عَطْشاناتُ He likes his job even though his salary is low يُحِبُّ عَمَلَهُ مَعَ أَنَّ راتِبَهُ مُنْخَفِضٌ He is strong, however, he is not steadfast هُوَ قَويّ إِلا أَنّه ليس صامدًا Knowing that he is diligent, I think he will succeed, God willing. عِلمًا بأَنّهُ مُجْتَهِدًا أَظُنُّهُ سَيَنْجَحُ إنْ شاءَ اللّه
Inna and its sisters
Learn about the Arabic particles "Inna" and its sisters and how they are used to emphasize and introduce new information in a sentence. Explore examples and understand the nuances of these particles with our comprehensive guide.
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